Robotic-Assisted Partial Knee Replacement

What is Partial Knee Replacement?

Partial knee replacement is a minimally invasive surgery in which only the damaged compartment of the knee is replaced with an implant. It is also called a unicompartment knee replacement.

The knee can be divided into three compartments: patellofemoral, the compartment in front of the knee between the kneecap and thighbone, medial compartment, on the inside portion of the knee, and lateral compartment which is the area on the outside portion of the knee joint.

What is Robotic Assisted Partial Knee Replacement?

Robotic assisted knee replacement surgery is an alternative to the conventional knee replacement procedure. It is performed using robotic-arm technology that allows the surgeon to precisely perform the surgery through a smaller incision as compared to traditional surgery. It is indicated for patients suffering from degenerative knee diseases such as osteoarthritis.

Indications for Robotic Assisted Partial Knee Replacement

Your doctor may recommend surgery if non-surgical treatment options such as medications, injections and physical therapy have failed to relieve the symptoms.

Robotic assisted partial knee replacement is performed when your arthritis is confined to a single compartment of your knee.

Surgical Procedure for Robotic Assisted Partial Knee Replacement

Robotic assisted partial knee replacement utilizes X-rays and CT scans to determine the damaged areas of the joint that need to be removed for the precise placement of the knee implant. Then, the damaged portions of the femur bone are cut at appropriate angles using specialized jigs. The femoral component is attached to the end of the femur with or without bone cement.

The surgeon then cuts or shaves the damaged area of the tibia (shinbone) and the cartilage. This removes the deformed part of the bone and any bony growths, as well as creates a smooth surface on which the implants can be attached. Next, the tibial component is secured to the end of the bone with bone cement or screws.

Your surgeon will place a plastic piece called an articular surface between the implants to provide a smooth gliding surface for movement. This plastic insert will support the body’s weight and allow the femur to move over the tibia, like the original meniscus cartilage.

The femur and the tibia with the new components are then put together to form the new knee joint.

To make sure the patella (kneecap) glides smoothly over the new artificial knee, its rear surface is also prepared to receive a plastic component. All these steps are performed with the help of the robotic arms.

With all the new components in place, the knee joint is tested through its range of motion. The entire joint is then irrigated and cleaned with a sterile solution. The incision is carefully closed; drains are inserted and a sterile dressing is placed over the incision.

Benefits of Robotic Assisted Partial Knee Replacement

The benefits of the robotic assisted partial knee surgery include:

  • Smaller incisions
  • Rapid recovery
  • Precise placement of the implant
  • Reduced injury to adjacent tissues
  • Increased longevity of the implant